Break the Vicious Cycle of Inflammation—

Synovitis drives the onset and progression of canine OA1


The selective elimination of macrophages and synoviocytes could:6

  • Reduce inflammatory mediators
  • Break the cycle of pain and inflammation
  • Alter the course of chronic OA treatment
Updated cycle graphic with 'vicious'

Experts agree that synovitis is a key contributor to the inflammatory process leading to canine osteoarthritis.


Synovial inflammation is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of OA2,10,11

Arthroscopic view of canine diarthrodial joint showing early-onset synovial hyperplasia and angiogenesis12

  • Reveals robust synovitis and synovial hyperplasia, the initial event in the histopathology of OA, occurring before the onset of radiographic changes

Synovetin OA® delivers sustained OA pain relief.13

Synovetin OA® provides targeted, non-systemic therapy.14


  1. ACVS. Canine elbow dysplasia. Available at: Accessed 5/15/19.
  2. Benito MJ, Veale DJ, FitzGerald O, et al. Synovial tissue inflammation in early and late osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:1263-1267. doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.025270.
  3. Bondeson J, Blom AB, Wainwright S, et al. The role of synovial macrophages and macrophage-produced mediators in driving inflammatory and destructive responses in osteoarthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2010;62(3):647-657. Doi:10.1002/art.27290.
  4. Blom AB, van Lent PL, Libregts S, et al. Crucial role of macrophages in matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage destruction during experimental osteoarthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2007;56(1):147-157. doi: 10.1002/art.22337.
  5. Goldring MB, Goldring SR. Osteoarthritis. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:626-634. doi: 10.1002/jcp.21258.
  6. Sellam J, Berenbaum F. The role of synovitis in pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010;6:625-635. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2010.159.
  7. Bleedorn JA, Greuel EN, Manley PA, et al. Synovitis in dogs with stable stifle joints and incipient cranial cruciate ligament rupture: a cross-sectional study. Vet Surg. 2011;40:531-543. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00841.x.
  8. Klocke NW, Snyder PW, Widmer WR, et al. Detection of synovial macrophages in the joint capsule of dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:493-499.
  9. Doom M, de Bruin T, de Rooster H, et al. Immunopathological mechanisms in dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;125:143-161. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.05.023.
  10. Sokolove J, Lepus CM. Role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis: latest findings and interpretations. Ther Adv Musculoskel Dis. 2013;5(2):77-94. DOI: 10.1177/1759720X12467868.
  11. Scanzello CR, Umoh E, Pessler F, et al. Local cytokine profiles in knee osteoarthritis: elevated synovial fluid interleukin-15 differentiates early from end-stage disease. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009;17:1040-1048. DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2009.02.011.
  12. Fox SM. Pathophysiology of osteoarthritic pain. In: Chronic Pain in Small Animal Medicine. CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida; 2009;74-96.
  13. Data on file, Exubrion Therapeutics.
  14. Fox SM, Donecker JM. Donecker JM, Fox SM. Safety and effectiveness of Synovetin OA™: Results of three randomized trials evaluating treatment of naturally occurring canine elbow osteoarthritis. Exubrion Therapeutics, July 2019.